Home TutorialsDocker Part 2: Build and publish your own Docker image

Part 2: Build and publish your own Docker image

by Atif Azad

Welcome to the second part of our Docker tutorial series. In this part we will build a Docker image by writing a very simple Dockerfile and we will publish the image on Dockerhub. This very simple example will make it easy for you to understand the steps rather than involving you in understanding a complex Dockerfile at this stage!

In part one of this tutorial, we created our first Docker container and it was based on Alpine Linux image. We’ll resume exactly where we concluded the previous part. Running the following command in terminal creates and runs an alpine container (after pulling the image from Dockerhub, if it doesn’t already exist in local repository).

> docker container run -it alpine /bin/sh

After running the container, this command also moves us into the shell of container. As we saw in first part we can execute the standard Linux file system commands like ls, mkdir and so on.

However, as this is a minimal Linux image, it doesn’t come shipped with many tools/packages pre-installed. Instead we can decide which tools are required for our application and we can install only those tools or packages so avoiding the useless stuff and keeping the size of our image minimal.

Lets try something… in your container’s shell, try to execute curl command. curl does not come preinstalled in alpine image so you’ll get the error curl not found.

> curl https://google.com

As this is a (containerised) Linux machine, you should be able to install any package and tool with normal Alpine Linux commands. Alpine Linux uses apk tool as its package manager. As you are still inside your container shell, execute the following command.

> apk add curl
results of apk add curl in an Alpine Linux Docker container

So this results in successful installation of curl. Now execute curl https://google.com, this time it will not fail.

Scenario

Consider a simple scenario that all your team of five persons needs is a lightweight alpine machine which has curl installed. Let’s also assume that there is no such existing image available on Dockerhub. The solution is pretty simple that you will build a Docker image yourself and your team members will use your new Docker image 🙂

Build a new Docker image using Dockerfile

To build a new Docker image, you first need to be able to define its structure. Considering the scenario stated above, we need a container image that has following two characteristics…

  1. It should be a light-weight alpine image.
  2. It should have curl enabled.

From the discussion so far, we know following already…

  1. The Linuxalpine image doesn’t come shipped with curl.
  2. The Linux alpine image does have apk package manager tool available.
  3. When we executed apk add curl , it installed curl successfully in the alpine container.

Based on this information, let’s write instructions in a Dockerfile which will be used to build our new Docker image! Do following steps:

  1. Create a folder curl-alpine (or any other suitable name)
  2. Create a file named Dockerfile inside that folder and paste following code in that file.
  1. While you are inside curl-alpine folder, execute the following command (we will explain it in a while).
> docker build -t curl-alpine:latest .

Awesome! You have built your own first Docker image. Before we move ahead, lets see what does this build command do!

Explaining the docker build command

Let’s explain the command docker build -t curl-alpine:latest .

  • docker, you know, is the utility/tool.
  • build is the name of command
  • -t is the flag which can be used to specify a name for the image and optionally a tag. In our command, we have named the image curl-alpine and tagged it latest. The syntax is image_name:tag.
  • . is the build context. It must be path to a directory. This . here implies that the build context is current directory. If your Dockerfile is somewhere else, you can specify the path to the directory which contains it.

Explaining the Dockerfile

Our example is so basic so our Dockerfile contains only two commands. See below the output of docker build.

The results of docker build command to create our curl-alpine image.

The output clearly shows where the two steps of our Dockerfile. You can see that Step 1/2 : FROM alpine:latest results in just linking to the existing image that we downloaded in first part.

The second step (Step 2/2 : RUN apk add --no-cache curl) involves the downloading and installing curl as well as its dependencies.

Now any container created using our curl-alpine image will have pre-installed curl unlike the official alpine image.

The beauty of Docker:

The beauty of Docker lies in the fact that it builds images layer by layer. Each command in Dockerfile is a layer for which an intermediary image is created. As you have seen in the output of docker build command, it didn’t pull the alpine image again instead it referenced to the existing image in local repository. This results not only in faster processing of build command but it also saves the disk space by avoiding multiple copies of same image.

This is a very basic example but in next tutorials you’ll see Docker files with more commands (i.e. more layers) and you’ll recognise that how useful is this layered structure.

Running the container

Good job so far! Next step is to run the container which is same as we did in first part. Run the following command…

> docker container run -it curl-alpine /bin/sh

So you are inside the shell of your containerised Alpine Linux machine which is unlike the one we created in first part in that that it already has curl installed because we made curl part of our curl-alpine image using the commands we listed in Dockerfile. Now if you try to execute following command,

> curl https://google.com

This time it will run successfully without having to install curl manually. So you’re good to share your Dockerfile with your team members and they can simply docker build and docker run to have this simple identical machine across the team.

You can use command docker container ls to see the list of containers running (use flag -a to see stopped ones also). You can see that the new container is built using our own image curl-alpine.

The results of docker container ls command showing the container created using our curl-alpine image.

Explaining the docker container run command

Let’s see what are the components of command docker container run -it curl-alpine /bin/sh

  • docker is the utility/tool.
  • container which is a parent command, you can think of it as a namespace for other commands which are related to containers like run, list etc.
  • run is the command to run a container.
  • -it these are two flags together; -i(interactive) and -t (allocate a pseudo terminal).
  • curl-alpine is the name of Docker image which is used to create this container. (We have built this image in the section above: Build a new Docker image using Dockerfile).
  • /bin/sh we can specify any command here that we want to execute after container runs. /bin/sh opens the shell of container. You can use any valid command, for example try following.
> docker container run -it curl-alpine curl https://google.com

As you see, this time the control does not shift inside the container’s shell but instead the curl command gets executed inside and the output is displayed in the host shell.

Publishing your Docker image to Dockerhub

You can push your Docker images to Dockerhub and those will be accessible to the people all over or even if you want to share within your team Dockerhub is a good central place. Let us now push the image we created in section above (Build a new Docker image using Dockerfile).

To push a Docker image to your Dockerhub account, you need to name your image prefixed with your account name and then push it. For example my Dockerhub account name is atifazad so the commands for me are as follows (replace atifazad with your account name):

> docker tag curl-alpine atifazad/curl-alpine:latest
> docker push atifazad/curl-alpine

When everything goes good, these commands result in similar to…

The results of command docker push atifazad/curl-alpine.

On Dockerhub, you can view this image here: https://hub.docker.com/r/atifazad/curl-alpine and you can see the command to pull this image.

docker pull atifazad/curl-alpine

Now with your image available on Dockerhub, your teammates don’t have to take the Dockerfile and build the image. Instead they can simply execute docker pull <your_dockerhub_username>/curl-alpine and then docker container run as explained above 🙂

What’s ahead!

This tutorial explains how to build and publish your own Docker image with a very simple Dockerfile example. When you have to create a Docker setup for your projects you’ll follow similar steps but with a more detailed and sophisticated Dockerfile and probably also using docker-compose to support your development environment.

In the next tutorial in this series, we will build upon what we have learned so far and we will Dockerise a simple application. Till then good bye 🙂

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